$100 Million: A first big step on the Elliott State Forest!

July 13, 2017

by Rhett Lawrence, Conservation Director

After many years of doubts about the future of the Elliott State Forest, we may finally have turned the corner on saving it, thanks to Governor Kate Brown, Treasurer Tobias Read, and the Oregon Legislature. As you will read below, we owe a huge debt of gratitude to the Governor, the Treasurer, and the legislative leaders who came together to find a solution for the forest.

Like many of you, I breathed a sigh of relief in May when the State Land Board voted to keep the Elliott open and accessible to all. But even after that, we knew there was one further huge hurdle that we needed to get over in the 2017 session of the Oregon Legislature. In order to ensure a solution for the Elliott that works for everyone, we needed for legislators to approve the $100 million in bonding proposed by Governor Brown to withdraw the most sensitive areas of the Elliott from its obligations to generate revenue for the Common School Fund. And in an era of constrained budgets all around, we knew that getting $100 million was a tall order indeed. But wonder of wonders – the Legislature approved a bonding package in the waning days of the 2017 session that did just that!

Appropriating that $100 million was a huge accomplishment, no doubt, but in many ways, it is just a down payment on the future of the Elliott. Under Governor Brown’s plan, the bonding money will be used first to end the state’s obligation to excessively log the most sensitive areas of the forest to fund our schools. Next, the Governor’s plan would establish a “Habitat Conservation Plan” for much of the rest of the land, developed in partnership with tribal governments, conservation groups, and other community members. This would allow some logging to occur, while also protecting endangered and threatened species such as spotted owls and murrelets.

Treasurer Tobias Read has also presented a complementary plan that allows Oregon State University an option to buy the Elliott for the $121 million remaining after the $100 million bonding down payment in order to manage it as an experimental forest. And whether we now move forward with the Governor’s plan or the Treasurer’s plan – or some combination of the two – we at the Sierra Club also welcome the possibility for some of the lands to be returned to the Tribes who occupied the area long before it came into state or federal ownership. But by getting the bonding approved, we have taken a big first step toward preserving and protecting the Elliott for all of us – the hikers, hunters, anglers, bird watchers, and Oregon’s diverse communities.

In addition to finding the bonding money for the Elliott, the Oregon Legislature also passed Senate Bill 847, establishing a Trust Land Transfer program in Oregon for the first time. This program could help prevent future Elliott-like situations by providing a mechanism by which money could be appropriated over time to purchase encumbered lands. Washington State has had a similar program since 1989 and has moved nearly 120,000 acres of encumbered trust lands out of the trust to benefit school kids and the environment. We are excited by the passage of SB 847 in Oregon and we hope it can help us replicate many of the successes of the Washington program.

So, obviously, much more work remains to be done on the Elliott. But we should be very happy with the successes we did achieve in the 2017 legislative session – and in the years leading up to it, where we were always teetering on the edge of having the forest sold off to the highest bidder. We are thrilled that we have taken the first steps toward a solution that results in a forest that is preserved for all of us – the hikers, hunters, anglers, bird watchers, and others. And importantly, the Sierra Club is hopeful that Tribes can be a part of that solution and that past injustices regarding the seizure of their ancestral lands can be remedied in part.

No one believes that any of the rest of this will be easy, but we now at least have reason to believe that we are headed in the right direction and for that we should all be thankful.


Legislative Update: We’re in the home stretch!

June 16, 2017

As we enter the final month of the 2017 Oregon legislative session, it’s becoming clear that this year won’t be notable for its environmental successes. We’ve had a few victories and are hoping for a few more, but right now, it may be all we can do to stave off some real rollbacks! We need your help to save the Clean Fuels Program and get us to the finish line on the Elliott State Forest, among other things. See below for ways you can help!

This year the Oregon Chapter’s top legislative priority has been to pass the “Clean Energy Jobs bill” to put a price on greenhouse gas emissions and create a “cap and invest” program. House Bill 2135 currently sits in the House Rules Committee, as the Senate Environment and Natural Resources Committee and the House Energy and Environment Committee have held periodic informational hearings to sort through the details of the proposal. It’s still possible we can move a bill in the 2017 session and you can help by contacting your legislators to tell them it’s time to act on greenhouse gas emissions in Oregon.

(Photo by Josh Laughlin, Cascadia Wildlands)

Our other top priority continues to be passing legislation that can help to solve the ongoing conundrum with the Elliott State Forest. After the State Land Board voted in May to keep the Elliott in public ownership, the focus has now shifted to finding a pathway to $100 million in bonding to begin the process of buying out the Common School Fund obligations of the forest. We would also like to pass Senate Bill 847, the Trust Lands Transfer bill, to prevent future Elliott-like situations. Take action here to contact your legislator and help find a real solution to preserve the Elliott for all of us.

As many of you know, the transportation package is one of the major focuses for the Oregon Legislature this year. We have been supporting our partners’ efforts to create a package that will invest in the infrastructure and services that most meet Oregonians’ needs: rural and urban transit, safe walking and biking options, clean air solutions, and public accountability. Unfortunately, that transportation discussion has again been hijacked by an effort to roll back the Clean Fuels Program in our state. We need for you to contact your legislator today to tell them we need BOTH transportation improvements and the Clean Fuels Program.

We do have one real victory already in this session in the form of Senate Bill 3! That legislation will go a long way toward limiting the impacts of suction dredge mining on our state’s waters. Governor Brown signed the bill on June 14 and will be holding a ceremonial signing of the bill very soon, so keep an eye for our pictures from that event. This victory was a long time in coming and it will have real benefits to salmon habitat in Oregon. Our coalition has worked for years to make it happen and we should all be proud of our accomplishment!

We are also still working on a package of bills to address the critical issue of oil trains in our state. House Bill 2131 and Senate Bill 7 will help to improve safety and cleanup standards for the trains that are coming through Oregon. SB 7 is in the Senate Rules committee and HB 2131 is in the Ways and Means committee and we are hopeful one or the other can move this session.

Senate Bill 1008 would have created more stringent standards for diesel emissions in Oregon. Unfortunately, that bill has been largely gutted and no longer really does much of anything useful. We are supporting our allies’ efforts to make it stronger in the Senate Rules Committee. This legislation will also pave the way for Oregon to receive $68 million in Volkswagen settlement money to fund clean air work in our state. So we hope that we can get the bill back to the point where it will also get dirty diesel out of our air.

So we’ve got lots to do in these last few weeks of the 2017 session! As always, our success depends on you, so keep calling, writing, and e-mailing your legislators and making a difference for Oregon!


Portland and Multnomah County Pass 100% Renewable Energy Resolutions

June 12, 2017

Last Wednesday, June 1st, on the same day that Donald Trump withdrew the United States from the Paris climate agreement, the Portland, OR, City Council and Multnomah County Commission committed to a just transition to 100% renewable electricity by 2035, and to meet all energy needs, including transportation, heating and cooling, and electricity, with 100% renewable energy by 2050. Both of these resolutions were adopted by unanimous votes of those present. (Councilor Amanda Fritz was absent from the Portland City Council meeting.)

RF100_100by2050_graphic

 

 

This is a very big deal! These 2 landmark 100% Renewable Energy Resolutions are among the strongest resolutions of their kind in the nation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the bottom of this post there is a list of articles about the resolutions which will help you understand how important they are.

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Before the hearing there was a rally with speakers, among them, Beyond Coal Organizer Laura Stevens, pictured here. Photo Credit Colin McClean

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Both floors of the Portland City Council Chamber were filled, requiring the city to open up an overflow room with over 200 people in attendance. Photo Credit Colin McClean

If you would like to read the resolutions that were adopted here are links to the Portland resolution and the Multnomah County [link coming soon] resolution.

We owe our success in getting these strong resolutions passed in large part due to the groundwork laid down during the work on the campaign to block Portland General Electric (PGE) from adding 2 new fracked gas powered plants to the Carty-Boardman site (read the blog post on that campaign ). That campaign was organized by first reaching out to partner groups and then developing a campaign plan based on inputs from all member groups. When it came time to develop a campaign plan for these 100% Renewable Energy Resolutions we repeated this process and added new partner groups.

This victory was made possible by the work of our amazing Sierra Club volunteers along with the work of hundreds of other dedicated volunteers from our allies.

Thank you to all the amazing volunteers who contributed to this effort by:

  • Talking to People About What is Important to you
  • Comment Card Collecting
  • Comment Card Processing
  • Phone Banking
  • Submitting Email Comments
  • Encouraging Your Circle of Contacts to Submit Email Comments
  • Calling Elected Officials
  • Making Banners and Public Hearing Props
  • Helping to Stage Rallies and Hearings
  • Planning and Attending Rallies
  • Planning, Testifying and Attending Hearings.

Individually, each of these actions does not seem like it’s accomplishing much.

But look what happens when you put them all together!

The next time someone asks you: “What can one person do to make a difference?” You can tell them:

Join the Sierra Club!
            
Activism Makes a Difference!

There is one more important point that needs to be understood. Getting these strong resolutions passed is not the end of this work, it is the beginning. We need to be a part of the process of implementing these resolutions in a way that is true to their intent. Strong implementation is critical to getting what we really want:

An Energy System Free From Fossil Fuels Closely coupled with: A Just Equitable Transition Where All Members of Society Have Their Voices Represented and Can Thrive

If you want to be a part of this important work, contact one of the following people:

Nakisha Nathan, Climate Justice Organizer, nakisha.nathan@sierraclub.org
Laura Stevens, Beyond Coal Organizer, laura.stevens@sierraclub.org
Gregory Monahan, Chair, Beyond Gas & Oil Team, gregory.monahan@oregon.sierraclub.org


Update on Proposed Kalama Methanol Refinery

June 11, 2017

The proposed Kalama Methanol Refinery has received approval for their Shoreline Substantial Development Permit from the Washington State Department of Ecology. This comes after environmental and social justice groups flooded Ecology with over 19.000 comments opposed to the refinery.

Kalama_Gas_Usage

If built, this would be the largest methanol refinery in the world! It would refine fracked gas into methanol in Kalama, WA, and ship it to China to make plastics. This single project would consume more fracked gas than any sector of Washington’s economy. It would require new gas pipeline infrastructure, likely down the I-5 corridor in Washington bringing fracked gas down from Canada. Gas infrastructure carries a big risk of explosions.

The production, refinement and transportation of fracked (so called “natural”) gas leaks methane, a greenhouse gas over 80 times more potent than carbon dioxide. This means that the climate impact of this project is HUGE.

We need Governor Inslee to come out against this project, and realize that natural gas is no bridge fuel to a clean energy future; instead it is a gang plank to a dirty fossil fuel future.

Governor Inslee recently championed a coalition of governors committed to climate action. Approval of this methanol refinery runs counter to his and Washington State’s climate commitments. His commitments to our climate will mean nothing unless he stands up against this refinery! Click here to send an email to Governor Inslee Urging him to come out against the proposed Kalama Refinery. 

The Sierra Club and other public interest organizations intend to appeal the Shoreline permit, and the project’s dreadfully inadequate Environmental Impact Statement, to the Washington Shorelines Hearings Board.

The same company, Northwest Innovation Works, that is trying to build this plant in Kalama has plans to build an identical plant across the Columbia at Port Westward in Clatskanie, OR. One more reason to stop this project from being built.

If you want to work to stop this dirty, dangerous project contact Cecile Gernez, Conservation Organizer, Sierra Club Washington State Chapter                               email: cecile.gernez@sierraclub.org


Jordan Cove LNG: The Empire Strikes Back

May 18, 2017

By Ted Gleichman

We have complex Jordan Cove news, so I will overstrain this Star Wars metaphor right from the get-go.

Proposed Jordan Cove Construction Site-OPB-EarthFix

View of the proposed Jordan Cove LNG export terminal site on Coos Bay.
Credit: Jes Burns, Oregon Public Broadcasting / EarthFix

We all remember the temporary victories of last year: the valiant Rebel fighters in Southern Oregon brought down the Empire’s local Death Star: the Jordan Cove liquefied natural gas (LNG) export terminal plan and the fracked-gas Pacific Connector pipeline necessary to serve it.

Technically, the Rebels persuaded a key Empire directorate, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), to go rogue briefly, for the first time ever on LNG, to deny federal permits to the Death Star (twice).

Then Darth Vader was anointed to take over the Empire, in a structural coup that displaced the assumed new Empress (even though she was supported by more of the Empire’s electorate). And FERC – never a true friend to the Resistance – emphasized that the Death Star owner (Veresen Inc., from the key Empire fossil fuels province of Canada) could re-apply for a new Death Star any time. And so they did, saying that Emperor Vader would save them….

Ok, enough Star Wars…. This 13-year battle now has moved into a blend of old and new terrain. We continue to work to build local and state support, while restructuring how to fight through the new FERC process and defeat state permits. Here are the highlights:

  • Veresen and Jordan Cove get strong support from the Trump Regime
  • Senators Wyden and Merkley try to play both sides with Trump and FERC
  • Merkley proposes a Full-Renewables Policy, with a Jordan Cove Loophole
  • Veresen agrees to a Sweetheart Merger with Pembina Pipeline Corp.
  • The Trump Regime announces new FERC Nominees – Wyden is key
  • Jordan Cove defeats a controversial local-control ordinance in Coos County
  • Coming next: Outreach to Wyden, Merkley, Governor Brown, and others

Veresen and Jordan Cove get strong support from the Trump Regime

Three days after President Trump’s inauguration, leaders of major construction unions met directly with him and top aides (including Steve Bannon) at the White House to promote Jordan Cove. They received a pledge of support: they were told that Jordan Cove would be the third energy infrastructure project on regime list for approval, immediately after the Keystone XL pipeline and the Dakota Access pipeline. Veresen CEO Donald Althoff was also incorporated into a major Trump corporate sales pitch and is claiming White House support.

Senior Trump aide Gary Cohn, director of the National Economic Council and a top advisor to the President on infrastructure plans, spoke recently to a key globalization think-tank, the Institute of International Economics. He stated bluntly, “We’re going to approve an LNG export terminal on the West Coast.”

Cohn, a former Goldman Sachs executive, made it clear that he was speaking specifically about Jordan Cove. He was definitive on Trump’s power to approve it, despite the fact that legally FERC is an independent agency.

Senators Wyden and Merkley try to play both sides with Trump and FERC

In response, Oregon Senators Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley issued a joint warning to the White House, saying in essence, ‘Don’t mess with FERC, but we still like Jordan Cove.’

This remarkable letter has, for me, a ‘split the baby’ feel, and is a perfect example of the conundrum facing all of us: A huge percentage of the Democratic Party base opposes Trump on every level. Another traditionally-Democratic set of constituencies, portions of Labor and other rural and blue-collar voters, were vital to Trump’s Electoral College victory.

Both senators have been supportive of Jordan Cove – sometimes strongly supportive – through many twists and turns as the facts on the ground have evolved and opposition has grown.   But now Jordan Cove is a first-tier Trump agenda item.

And in Oregon, the power of the Building Trades in Democratic Party politics and the desperate need for high-wage jobs in Southern Oregon have been the key factors in preventing formal Democratic elected-official opposition to a pipeline and terminal that are terrible for landowners and communities, the local ecology, and the planet.

Furthermore, FERC has been a truly brutal agency, forcing eminent domain abuses on landowners on pipeline routes across the country before the pipelines have even received other mandatory approvals. FERC denied Jordan Cove twice last year because it is one of the worst and weakest LNG export projects in the United States – not because there is anything admirable about FERC’s management of fossil fuels exploitation as we live in climate crisis.

Merkley proposes a Full-Renewables Economy, with a Jordan Cove Loophole

Simultaneously, Senator Merkley was the lead sponsor and prime mover for a massive new bill that (if eventually approved) would constitute the most ambitious federal reform plan yet for our long-term energy use: the 100 by ’50 Plan: 100% renewables in the U.S. by 2050. The 319-page bill, S. 987, is designed to reform every section of the U.S. energy economy. Although controversial in many ways, it is a serious effort…

….EXCEPT the section prohibiting most new fossil fuels infrastructure, Section 501, would not take effect until 2021, for reasons that are unclear. This apparent loophole moves this crucial component of “Keep It In the Ground” past the time when Jordan Cove now expects to receive federal and state approvals and begin construction.

Many in Southern Oregon fighting to stop Jordan Cove and the pipeline see Senator Merkley’s actions as hypocritical.

Veresen agrees to a Sweetheart Merger with Pembina Pipeline Corp.

At the same time, Veresen agreed to a sweetheart merger with another Canadian fossil fuels company, Pembina Pipeline Corp. The two companies expect Canadian regulatory approval this fall, and the merger would make Pembina one of the largest Canadian fossil fuels companies (although still only medium-sized by U.S. and global standards).

The Pembina CEO praised Jordan Cove as a key opportunity, apparently forgetting the 2015 defeat of their $500 million propane export terminal proposal in Portland.

The Trump Regime announces new FERC Nominees – Wyden is key

FERC has been unable to approve any major new project since early February, when the five-member commission fell to two members and lost the ability to constitute a quorum. Under strong pressure from the fossil fuels industry, the Trump regime announced two new nominees last week: both are reliable supporters of all oil and gas projects.

One of Trump’s nominees is the top energy aide to Senate Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. The other has been the top state manager of the fracking boom from the Marcellus shale-gas region in Pennsylvania, where many of the worst fracking abuses have happened.

The new nominees must be approved by the Senate Energy & Natural Resources Committee before the full Senate can move them to re-start FERC. Senator Ron Wyden is a former chair of that committee, and will be one of the most important Senators reviewing theses nominees and the new role of FERC under Trump.   Stay tuned!

Jordan Cove defeats a controversial local-control ordinance in Coos County

On May 16, an ordinance initiated by petition by grass-roots activists in Coos County to promote sustainable energy and stop Jordan Cove was defeated 3-1. The proponents of this initiative were outspent by Jordan Cove more than 50-1.

The long-term impact of this valiant effort remains to be seen, although Jordan Cove proponents will claim it as definitive (wrongly, I believe). The measure, a “community rights” proposal developed in conjunction with the controversial Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund, is seen by most legal observers to be unconstitutional when applied solely on a local level, and court challenges to date have borne that out.

But the well-meaning fervor of these local activists to make change will, I believe, rebound and restore itself over time.

Coming next: Outreach to Wyden, Merkley, Governor Brown, and others.

So: what is to be done? Watch your email action alerts: we will be presenting you with opportunities to help educate our Senator and Governor Kate Brown on the fallacy of allowing the Jordan Cove Energy Project fracked-gas export terminal and the Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline to proceed forward.

This project will never be built.

Ted Gleichman is policy advisor for the Oregon Chapter Beyond Gas & Oil Team and a member of the National Strategy Team for Sierra Club’s Beyond Dirty Fuels Campaign.

 

 

 

 


Legislative Update: Suction dredges, clean energy jobs, Elliott, and nukes!

May 15, 2017

We’ve now passed the midway point of the 2017 Oregon legislative session, and so far, it’s been something less than a walk in the park. As noted in previous updates, after several sessions with some real environmental progress (but also partisan divisiveness), we knew we would have a hard slog in making much progress in 2017. So things have gone pretty much as expected so far, and here are some updates on a few of the issues we’re working on.

This year the Oregon Chapter’s top legislative priority has been to pass the “Clean Energy Jobs bill” to put a price on greenhouse gas emissions and create a “cap and invest” program. After the Senate version of the concept (SB 557) met an untimely demise, the focus has shifted to the House version, HB 2135. That bill currently sits in the House Rules Committee, as the Senate Environment and Natural Resources Committee and the House Energy and Environment Committee hold periodic informational hearings to sort through the details of the proposal. It’s still possible we can move a bill in the 2017 session and you can help by contacting your legislators to tell them it’s time to act on greenhouse gas emissions in Oregon.

Another climate policy we were working on was the “Climate Test”, which was essentially a scaled-down version of a State Environmental Policy Act that would apply to fossil fuel infrastructure projects in Oregon. Like the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), it would require cross-agency communications to consider the impacts of proposed fossil fuel infrastructure projects and subject such proposals to an environmental impact statement (EIS) with full lifecycle accounting of the project’s greenhouse gas emissions. Unfortunately, though we had good hearings in both the Senate and House environment committees, the bills failed to make it out of committee. But we hope to be back with this idea next session!

Our other top priority continues to be passing legislation that can help to solve the ongoing conundrum with the Elliott State Forest. As described elsewhere in this month’s Oregon Update, we had a real victory on May 9, when the State Land Board voted to keep the Elliott in public ownership. Many details remain to be sorted out, including finding a pathway to $100 million in bonding and passing Senate Bill 847, the Trust Lands Transfer bill. But we are hopeful that a real solution can be found to preserve the Elliott for all of us.

One potential bright spot for this session might come with the bill to limit the impacts of suction dredge mining on our state’s waters. Senate Bill 3 passed the Senate on a bipartisan vote in April and it is scheduled to be voted on in the House any day now. While this bill has been compromised from its initial version, it will still have real benefits to salmon habitat in Oregon. We hope to see this legislation enacted into law very soon!

One bill that recently sprung to our attention is SB 990 – the “nuke in a box” bill. This bill would create a loophole for local government sponsored small modular reactor nuclear power plants that would sidestep Oregon’s 1980 voter-enacted moratorium on nuclear power plant construction until a permanent waste disposal site for high-level radioactive waste is established by the federal government. Unfortunately, this misguided bill escaped the attention of just about everyone in the Oregon environmental community and it passed the Senate without serious opposition. We are working now to make sure that it doesn’t have such an easy glide path in the House.

Another bill we’ve been working on is House Bill 2711, which would impose a 10-year moratorium on oil and gas fracking in Oregon. The bill passed out of the House in April, though unfortunately in a fairly partisan fashion, so its prospects in the Senate are slightly less bright. We are also working on a package of bills to address the critical issue of oil trains in our state. House Bill 2131 and Senate Bill 7 will help to improve safety and cleanup standards for the trains that are coming through Oregon. Both bills currently sit in the Rules committees of their respective chambers.

Senate Bill 1008 would have created more stringent standards for diesel emissions in Oregon. Unfortunately, that bill has been largely gutted and is no longer nearly as strong as it needs to be. We are supporting our allies’ efforts to make it stronger in the Senate Rules Committee. This legislation will also pave the way for Oregon to receive $68 million in Volkswagen settlement money to fund clean air work in our state. So we hope that we can get the bill back to the point where it will also get dirty diesel out of our air.

Finally, as many of you know, the transportation package is one of the major focuses for the Oregon Legislature this year. We are supporting our partners’ efforts to create a package that will invest in the infrastructure and services that most meet Oregonians’ needs: rural and urban transit, safe walking and biking options, clean air solutions, and public accountability. The outlines of the proposed transportation package have just been revealed and we are currently assessing how best to engage in that discussion.

So there have been both hazards and opportunities in the 2017 session, and we’re trying to make the best of the latter while avoiding the former to the extent we can. As always, our success depends largely on you, so keep calling, writing, and e-mailing your legislators and making a difference for Oregon!


Climate Recovery’s Essential Ingredients

May 12, 2017

If you’re concerned about climate change, you know that time is of the essence. To meet the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 Degree Celsius target (that Climate scientists recommend), the world must reduce GHG emissions to essentially zero by 2050[1]. To accomplish this we must immediately start to replace fossil fuel energy with renewable energy and energy efficiency.  However, at the national level and even at the state-level here in Oregon, it’s hard to get effective and sufficient carbon reduction legislation passed. That’s why work at the city level is becoming increasingly important.

The Sierra Club’s YouCAN Corvallis group, in partnership with Our Children Trust, is working to pass a Climate Recovery Ordinance to ensure implementation of Corvallis’s Climate Action Plan (CAP).  The City is set to propose an ordinance and a way to implement the CAP, but it’s missing essential ingredients, such as: up-to-date, science-based GHG reduction goals that the City can be held accountable to; and annually tracking our progress with ways to get back on track if we’re not. We need these ingredients so that the earth doesn’t reach the 6+ Degrees Celsius that’s predicted if President Trump’s pledge to expand fossil fuel extraction to the max is followed through with. We might not be able to influence Trump’s administration right away, but we can influence our local leaders right now.

YouCanCorvallis Team Members

Therefore we submitted to the City Council Climate Recovery Ordinance, and we’re asking people to add their name here, in support. By adding your name you’ll let the Corvallis City Council know you support adding all the essential ingredients needed to make a greenhouse reduction ordinance meaningful.  –Thank you from the YouCAN Corvallis Team!

[1] On the last day of the Paris Summit, a panel of leading climate scientists evaluated what would be necessary to achieve its targets.  Prof. Hans Joachim Schellnhuber of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research said that for any chance of reaching the 1.5C target the richest nations need to reach zero fossil fuel use by 2030.  Kim Nicholas, “Top Scientists weigh in on current draft of Paris climate agreement,” Road to Paris, December 11, 2015, http://roadtoparis.info/2015/12/11/top-scientists-weigh-in-on-current-draft-of-paris-climate-agreement/.